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Many rural communes with few residents struggle to maintain and manage basic services such as running water, garbage collection, or properly paved communal roads. Each commune is governed by a mayor (maire) elected for a 6-year term. The communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. In Toulouse, on top of there being six intercommunal structures, the main community of Toulouse and its suburbs is only a community of agglomeration, although Toulouse is large enough to create an Urban Community according to the law. This is much more than in any other European country. This "mayor" was called provost of the merchants (prévôt des marchands) in Paris and Lyon; maire in Marseille, Bordeaux, Rouen, Orléans, Bayonne and many other cities and towns; mayeur in Lille; premier capitoul in Toulouse; viguier in Montpellier; premier consul in many towns of southern France; prêteur royal in Strasbourg; maître échevin in Metz; maire royal in Nancy; or prévôt in Valenciennes. Développement et quelques cases financées par d'autres partenaires (la JICA, les communes de France). The complete code has eight digits and three spaces within, but there is a popular simplified code with five digits and no space within: Each commune has a municipal council (conseil municipal) compound of municipal councilors (conseillers municipaux). So far, however, local conservatism has been strong, and no mandatory merging proposal ever has made it past committee in the French Parliament. Additionally some cities had obtained charters during the Middle Ages, either from the king himself, or from local counts or dukes (such as the city of Toulouse chartered by the counts of Toulouse). To better grasp the staggering number of communes in France, two comparisons can be made: First, of the original 15 member states of the European Union there are approximately 75,000 communes; France alone, which comprises 16 percent of the population of the EU-15, had nearly half of its communes. Napoleon also abolished the election of the municipal councils, which now were chosen by the prefect, the local representative of the central government. The median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Quelles villes de France possèdent le plus grand nombre d'habitants ? Today about 90 percent of communes and departments are exactly the same as those designed at the time of the French Revolution more than 200 years ago, with the same limits. The expression "intercommunality" (intercommunalité) denotes several forms of cooperation between communes. Par exemple, les enregistrements avec comme valeur "2018" dans le champ Année correspondent aux communes françaises existantes au 1er Janvier 2018. Ainsi, au 1er janvier 2020, la France ne comptait plus que 34 951 communes hors Mayotte et COM, ou 34 968 communes en incluant les 17 communes de Mayotte. However, for certain purposes there was one échevin or consul ranking above the others, a sort of mayor, although not with the same authority and executive powers as a modern mayor. These municipal arrondissements are not to be confused with the arrondissements that are subdivisions of French départements: French communes are considered legal entities, whereas municipal arrondissements, by contrast, have no official capacity and no budget of their own. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres (4.14 sq mi). In exchange for the creation of a community, the government allocates money to them based on their population, thus providing an incentive for communes to team up and form communities. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune. Countless rural communes that had hundreds of inhabitants at the time of the French Revolution now have only a hundred inhabitants or fewer. Fournit les informations dont vous avez besoin concernant les mairies et communes de France ; coordonnées, adresses email des mairies, nom du maire, téléphone, fax de la mairie, altitude, superficie des communes etc. Ce jeu de données détaille la liste des communes existantes françaises. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants; but there are also a small number of communes within much higher populations. The municipal councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the commune for a 6-year term. These structures have been left untouched by the Chevènement law, and they are on the decline. This meant that Paris had less autonomy than the smallest village. Quelles sont les communes françaises les plus peuplées ? [citation needed], In urban areas, the new intercommunal structures are much more a reality, being created by local decision-makers out of genuine belief in the worth of working together. Since the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts of 1539 by Francis I, the priest in charge of the parish was also required to record baptisms, marriages, and burials. Moreover, citizens from one village may be unwilling to have their local services run by an executive located in another village, whom they may consider unaware of or inattentive to their local needs. They had been emancipated from the power of feudal lords in the 12th and 13th centuries, had municipal bodies which administered the city, and bore some resemblance with the communes that the French Revolution would establish except for two key points: In the north, cities tended to be administered by échevins (from an old Germanic word meaning judge), while in the south, cities tended to be administered by consuls (in a clear reference to Roman antiquity), but Bordeaux was administered by jurats (etymologically meaning "sworn men") and Toulouse by capitouls ("men of the chapter"). Unlike the only partially successful statute enacted in 1966 and enabling urban communes to form urban communities, or the more marked failure of the Marcellin law of 1971, the Chevènement law met with a large measure of success, so that a majority of French communes are now involved in intercommunal structures. By way of contrast, in the German states bordering Alsace, the geo-political and administrative areas have been subject to various re-organizations from the 1960s onward. In 1971 the Marcellin law offered support and money from the government to entice the communes to merge freely with each other, but the law had only a limited effect (only about 1,300 communes agreed to merge with others). 50 parishes in the case of Paris), and they were usually enclosed by a defensive wall. [2][3] This is a considerably higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still largely reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. This article is about the municipal administrations of France. This is what the Chevènement law was concerned with, and it distinguished three structures with fiscal power: Apart from the above cases, the communes with the fewest inhabitants in the French Republic are: The largest commune of the French Republic is, The smallest commune of the French Republic is, In metropolitan France the largest commune is the commune of, The commune of the French Republic farthest away from Paris is the commune of, In continental France (i.e. 35 - Ille-et-Vilaine (353 communes) 36 - Indre (247 communes) 37 - Indre-et-Loire (277 communes) 38 - Isère (533 communes) 39 - Jura (544 communes) 40 - Landes (331 communes) 41 - Loir-et-Cher (291 communes) 42 - Loire (327 communes) 43 - Haute-Loire (260 communes) 44 - Loire-Atlantique (221 communes) 45 - Loiret (334 communes) 46 - Lot (340 communes) 47 - Lot-et-Garonne (319 … The Paris Commune was a popular-led democratic government that ruled Paris from March 18 to May 28, 1871. Several other cities of France quickly followed suit, and communes arose everywhere, each with their municipal guard. Mairies de France.org est un site privé indépendant de l'administration française. It shows the distinctive nature of the French commune as a geo-political or administrative entity. The consequence of the change, however, was that tens of thousands of villages which had never had legal "personality" (contrary to the chartered cities) suddenly became legal entities for the first time in their history. One problem is that mergers reduce the number of available elected positions, and thus are not popular with local politicians. On 1 January 2007, there were 2,573 such communities in metropolitan France (including five syndicats d'agglomération nouvelle, a category currently being phased out), made up of 33,327 communes (91.1 percent of all the communes of metropolitan France), and 52.86 million inhabitants, i.e. The municipal arrondissement is the only administrative unit below the commune in the French Republic, but existing only in these three communes. However, many smaller communes have retained their native name. In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (formerly Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (formerly Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (formerly Straßburg in German), Perpignan (formerly Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. Toutes les villes de France ... Cliquez sur une ville pour afficher ses informations. C’est égalem… The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes; even uninhabited mountains or rain forests are dependent on a commune for their administration. France was the most populous country in Europe at this time, with a population of approximately 25 million inhabitants in the late 18th century (England in contrast had only 6 million inhabitants), which accounts for the large number of parishes. Again this is a very small number, and here France stands absolutely apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries (communes in Switzerland or Rhineland-Palatinate may have a smaller surface area, as mentioned above, but they are more populated). Une telle base de données peut être utile pour des sites web ou des applications mobiles. [citation needed], Two famous examples of this are Toulouse and Paris. Située dans les Hauts-de-France, dans le département de l’Aisne (02), Saint-Quentin est une commune de 54 000 habitants. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. 86.7 percent of the population of metropolitan France. A commune is the smallest and oldest administrative division in France. Environnement La commune de Ghyvelde veille à sensibiliser ses citoyens à des pratiques plus respectueuses de l’environnement. Commune of France is the leader of the Syndicalist Internationale and maintains good relations with almost all socialist countries and major socialist movements (such as the CNT-FAI) around the world. Mairie et Ville de France - Annuaire de référence des mairies et communes françaises. French communes were created at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789–1790. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. The small Alsace region has more than double the number of municipalities compared to the large and populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (396 Gemeinden in September 2007). Friendly relations with Mexico, Georgia and Bharitya Commune. Declared hostility against the French government in exile, G… (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. Nom de la ville: Code postal: Département: Habitants They usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them. Préfecture de la région. (1) Within the current limits of metropolitan France, which existed between 1860 and 1871 and from 1919 to today. They wanted to do away with all the peculiarities of the past and establish a perfect society, in which all and everything should be equal and set up according to reason, rather than by tradition or conservatism. Structures with fiscal power. This is still the case today. there was no uniform status for these chartered cities, each one having its own status and specific organization. Associer une ville aux utilisateurs d’un site, puis regrouper ceux-ci par proximité ou réaliser une carte interactive de ces utilisateurs 2. A parish was essentially a church, the houses around it (known as the village), and the cultivated land around the village. By 1837 that situation was judged impractical, as mayors and municipal councils could not be parties in courts. In many areas, rich communes have joined with other rich communes and have refused to let in poorer communes, for fear that their citizens would be overtaxed to the benefit of poorer suburbs. However, in many places local feuds have arisen, and it was not possible to set up an intercommunal structure for the whole of the urban area: some communes refusing to take part in it, or even creating their own structure. Most of the communes in Alsace, along with those in other regions of France, have rejected the central government's calls for mergers and rationalization. Celles si sont triées de la ville la plus peuplée à la moins peuplée. [1] "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). The most extreme example of this is Paris, where the urbanized area sprawls over 396 communes. In Italy, the median area of communes (comuni) is 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi); in Belgium it is 40 km2 (15 sq mi); in Spain it is 35 km2 (14 sq mi); and in Germany, the majority of Länder have communes (Gemeinden) with a median area above 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi). The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, 'things held in common'. Les Mairies et communes de France: Annuaire des mairies et communes de Françaises. Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials (mayor and a "conseil municipal") with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. Syndicates can be set up for a particular purpose or to deal with several simultaneous matters. In metropolitan France 57 percent of the 36,683 communes[5] have fewer than 500 inhabitants and, with 4,638,000 inhabitants, these smaller communes constitute just 7.7 percent of the total population. Le Code Officiel Géographique rassemble les codes et libellés des communes, des cantons, des arrondissements, des départements, des régions, des pays et territoires étrangers au 1 er janvier 2020.. These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. Ce jeu de données est historisé : la date de validité de chaque enregistrement est indiquée dans le champ "Année". Before the revolution, France's lowest level of administrative division was the parish (paroisse), and there were up to 60,000 of them in the kingdom. A communal house had to be built in each of these villages, which would house the meetings of the municipal council as well as the administration of the commune. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. Since then, tremendous changes have affected France, as they have the rest of Europe: the Industrial Revolution, two world wars, and the rural exodus have all depopulated the countryside and increased the size of cities. [citation needed]. C’est très pratique pour les sites de ventes en ligne. Thus, in Europe, only Switzerland has as high a density of communes as France, and even there an extensive merger movement has started in the last 10 years. The rights and obligations of communes are governed by the Code général des collectivités territoriales (CGCT) which replaced the Code des communes (except for personnel matters) with the passage of the law of 21 February 1996 for legislation and decree number 2000-318 of 7 April 2000 for regulations.[10][11]. Usually, there was no mayor in the modern sense; all the échevins or consuls were on equal footing, and rendered decisions collegially. This was fewer than the 60,000 parishes that existed before the revolution (in cities and towns, parishes were merged into one single commune; in the countryside, some very small parishes were merged with bigger ones), but 41,000 was still a considerable number, without any comparison in the world at the time, except in the empire of China (but there, only county level and above had any permanent administration). gps.over-blog.com a vu le jour à la suite d’un pari un peu farfelu : photographier les panneaux d’entrée de toutes les communes de France. Quelques villes de France. Les services d'archives publiques sont répartis sur l’ensemble du territoire : Archives nationales, départementales, régionales, communales et intercommunales, Archives du ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères, du ministère des Armées et de nombreux autres organismes publics. Thus, they set out to establish administrative divisions that would be uniform across the country: the whole of France would be divided into départements, themselves divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons, themselves divided into communes, no exceptions. Other examples of retained names in the languages once spoken, or still spoken, on French territory: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) gives numerical indexing codes to various entities in France, notably the communes (which do not coincide with postcodes). Communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. This high number is typical of metropolitan France but is atypical when compared with other European countries. Today, French communes are still very much the same in their general principles as those that were established at the beginning of the Revolution. Paris in fact was one of the very few communes of France whose limits were extended to take into account the expansion of the urbanized area. There is nothing intrinsically different between "town" in English and commune in French. Alsace, with an area of 8,280 km2 (3,200 sq mi), and now part of the Région Grand Est, used to be the smallest of the regions of metropolitan France, and still has no fewer than 904 communes. The Chevènement law has been extremely successful in the sense that a majority of French communes now have joined the new intercommunal structures. Communes de France Recherchez une ville par département : 01 Ain; 02 Aisne; 03 Allier; 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence; 05 Hautes-Alpes; 06 Alpes-Maritimes In all other French communes, the municipal police are under the mayor's supervision. – "In the name of the law, I declare you united by the bonds of marriage."). This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. On 14 July 1789, at the end of the afternoon, following the storming of the Bastille, the provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles, was shot by the crowd on the steps of Paris City Hall. Such cooperation first made its appearance at the end of the 19th century in the form of a law on 22 March 1890, which provided for the establishment of single-purpose intercommunal associations. Découvrez les Communes de France à travers leurs sites Web.. (ajouter le votre) Départements. In this area as in many others, the work of the National Assembly was, properly speaking, revolutionary: not content with transforming all the chartered cities and towns into communes, the National Assembly also decided to turn all the village parishes into full-status communes. The commune is the lowest administrative division in France.It represents all parts of a town or a village under the same name, for example Paris, Bordeaux or Rennes.As of January 1, 2008, there were 36,781 communes in France, 36,569 of them in metropolitan France and 212 of them in overseas France.

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